Integration Test of Kubernetes and Keystone - Part 2

2018-07-24

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k8s-keystone-auth service is used for Kubernetes webhook authentication and authorization for OpenStack Keystone. The k8s-keystone-auth service can be running either as a static pod(controlled by kubelet) or a normal kubernetes service.

I wrote a blog post several months ago about how to integrate Keystone with Kubernetes authn/authz, in that blog, k8s-keystone-auth service is running as a static pod which is managed by kubelet. Nowadays, such add-on service is recommended to run as normal pods in the k8s cluster, so in this blog post I will talk about how to run k8s-keystone-auth service in a deployment and exposed as a k8s service.

Prerequisites

  • You already have an available kubernetes cluster(version >= 1.9.3) and you have the admin permission for the cluster.
  • You have an OpenStack environment and admin credentials.

If you run k8s-keystone-auth service as a static pod, the pod creation could be a part of kubernetes cluster initialization process.

Running k8s-keystone-auth as a Kubernetes service

Prepare the authorization policy

The authorization policy can be specified using an existing configmap name in the cluster, by doing this, the policy could be changed dynamically without the k8s-keystone-auth service restart. We need to create the configmap before running the k8s-keystone-auth service.

Currently, k8s-keystone-auth service supports four types of policies:

  • user. The Keystone user ID or name.
  • project. The Keystone project ID or name.
  • role. The user role defined in Keystone.
  • group. The group is not a Keystone concept actually, it’s supported for backward compatibility, you can use group as project ID.

For testing purpose, in the following configmap, we only allow the users in project demo with k8s-viewer role in OpenStack to query the pod information from all the namespaces. We create the configmap in kube-system namespace because we will also run k8s-keystone-auth service there.

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: k8s-auth-policy
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  policies: |
    [
      {
        "resource": {
          "verbs": ["get", "list", "watch"],
          "resources": ["pods"],
          "version": "*",
          "namespace": "default"
        },
        "match": [
          {
            "type": "role",
            "values": ["k8s-viewer"]
          },
          {
            "type": "project",
            "values": ["demo"]
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
EOF

Prepare the service certificates

For security reason, the k8s-keystone-auth service is running as an HTTPS service, so the TLS certificates need to be configured. For testing purpose, we are about to reuse the API server certificates, it’s recommended to create new ones in production environment though.

kubectl create secret generic keystone-auth-certs \
  --from-file=cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver.crt \
  --from-file=key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver.key \
  -n kube-system

Create service account for k8s-keystone-auth

In order to support dynamic policy configuration, the k8s-keystone-auth service needs to talk to the API server to query configmap resources. You can either specify a kubeconfig file or relies on the in-cluster configuration capability to instantiate the kubernetes client, the latter approach is commended.

For testing purpose, we reuse kube-system:default service account and grant the cluster admin role to the service account.

kubectl create clusterrolebinding default-cluster-admin \
  --clusterrole=cluster-admin \
  --serviceaccount=kube-system:default

Create k8s-keystone-auth service

Now we are ready to create the k8s-keystone-auth deployment and expose it as a service. There are several things we need to notice in the deployment manifest:

  • We are using the official nightly-built image k8scloudprovider/k8s-keystone-auth
  • We use k8s-auth-policy configmap created above.
  • The pod will use kube-system:default by default, you need to specify serviceAccount explicitly in the pod definition if you have created a new one.
  • We use keystone-auth-certs secret created above to pass the certificates to the container.
  • The value of --keystone-url needs to be changed according to your environment.
cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f -
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: k8s-keystone-auth
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    app: k8s-keystone-auth
spec:
  replicas: 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: k8s-keystone-auth
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: k8s-keystone-auth
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: k8s-keystone-auth
          image: k8scloudprovider/k8s-keystone-auth
          imagePullPolicy: Always
          args:
            - ./bin/k8s-keystone-auth
            - --tls-cert-file
            - /etc/kubernetes/pki/cert-file
            - --tls-private-key-file
            - /etc/kubernetes/pki/key-file
            - --policy-configmap-name
            - k8s-auth-policy
            - --keystone-url
            - http://10.140.81.86/identity/v3
          volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /etc/kubernetes/pki
              name: k8s-certs
              readOnly: true
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8443
      volumes:
      - name: k8s-certs
        secret:
          secretName: keystone-auth-certs
---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: k8s-keystone-auth-service
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  selector:
    app: k8s-keystone-auth
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 8443
      targetPort: 8443
EOF

Test k8s-keystone-auth service

Before we continue to config k8s API server, we could test the k8s-keystone-auth service by sending HTTP request directly on the kubernetes master node to make sure the service works as expected.

  • Authentication

    Fetch a token of any user from OpenStack, send request to the k8s-keystone-auth service, 10.109.16.219 is the cluster IP of k8s-keystone-auth service.

    cat <<EOF | curl -ks -XPOST -d @- https://10.109.16.219:8443/webhook | python -mjson.tool
    {
      "apiVersion": "authentication.k8s.io/v1beta1",
      "kind": "TokenReview",
      "metadata": {
        "creationTimestamp": null
      },
      "spec": {
        "token": "$token"
      }
    }
    EOF
    

    You can see the detailed information of the Keystone user from the response if the service is configured correctly:

    {
        "apiVersion": "authentication.k8s.io/v1beta1",
        "kind": "TokenReview",
        "metadata": {
            "creationTimestamp": null
        },
        "spec": {
            "token": "<truncated>"
        },
        "status": {
            "authenticated": true,
            "user": {
                "extra": {
                    "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/project/id": [
                        "423d41d3a02f4b77b4a9bbfbc3a1b3c6"
                    ],
                    "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/project/name": [
                        "demo"
                    ],
                    "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/roles": [
                        "member",
                        "load-balancer_member",
                        "reader",
                        "anotherrole"
                    ],
                    "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/user/domain/id": [
                        "default"
                    ],
                    "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/user/domain/name": [
                        "Default"
                    ]
                },
                "groups": [
                    "423d41d3a02f4b77b4a9bbfbc3a1b3c6"
                ],
                "uid": "ff369be2cbb14ee9bb775c0bcf2a1061",
                "username": "demo"
            }
        }
    }
    
  • Authorization

    From the above response, we know the demo user in the demo project doesn’t have k8s-viewer role associated, so the authorization will fail if we construct the authorization request using the information returned above:

    cat <<EOF | curl -ks -XPOST -d @- https://10.109.16.219:8443/webhook | python -mjson.tool
    {
      "apiVersion": "authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1",
      "kind": "SubjectAccessReview",
      "spec": {
        "resourceAttributes": {
          "namespace": "default",
          "verb": "get",
          "group": "",
          "resource": "pods"
        },
        "user": "demo",
        "group": ["423d41d3a02f4b77b4a9bbfbc3a1b3c6"],
        "extra": {
            "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/project/id": ["423d41d3a02f4b77b4a9bbfbc3a1b3c6"],
            "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/project/name": ["demo"],
            "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/roles": ["load-balancer_member","member", "reader", "anotherrole"]
        }
      }
    }
    EOF
    

    Response:

    {
        "apiVersion": "authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1",
        "kind": "SubjectAccessReview",
        "status": {
            "allowed": false
        }
    }
    

    But if we manually add k8s-viewer role to the roles list of the request, the authorization should pass:

    cat <<EOF | curl -ks -XPOST -d @- https://10.109.16.219:8443/webhook | python -mjson.tool
    {
      "apiVersion": "authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1",
      "kind": "SubjectAccessReview",
      "spec": {
        "resourceAttributes": {
          "namespace": "default",
          "verb": "get",
          "group": "",
          "resource": "pods"
        },
        "user": "demo",
        "group": ["423d41d3a02f4b77b4a9bbfbc3a1b3c6"],
        "extra": {
            "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/project/id": ["423d41d3a02f4b77b4a9bbfbc3a1b3c6"],
            "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/project/name": ["demo"],
            "alpha.kubernetes.io/identity/roles": ["load-balancer_member","member", "reader", "anotherrole", "k8s-viewer"]
        }
      }
    }
    EOF
    

    Response:

    {
        "apiVersion": "authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1",
        "kind": "SubjectAccessReview",
        "status": {
            "allowed": true
        }
    }
    

Now the k8s-keystone-auth service works as expected, we could go ahead to config kubernetes API server to use the k8s-keystone-auth service as a webhook service for both authentication and authorization. In fact, the k8s-keystone-auth service can be used for authentication or authorization only, and both as well, depending on your requirement.

Configuration on K8S master for authentication and authorization

  • Create webhook config file. 10.109.16.219 is the cluster IP of k8s-keystone-auth service. We reuse the folder /etc/kubernetes/pki/ because it’s already mounted and accessible by API server pod.

    cat <<EOF > /etc/kubernetes/pki/webhookconfig.yaml
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Config
    preferences: {}
    clusters:
      - cluster:
          insecure-skip-tls-verify: true
          server: https://10.109.16.219:8443/webhook
        name: webhook
    users:
      - name: webhook
    contexts:
      - context:
          cluster: webhook
          user: webhook
        name: webhook
    current-context: webhook
    EOF
    
  • Modify API server config file to use the webhook service for authentication.

    sed -i '/image:/ i \ \ \ \ - --authentication-token-webhook-config-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/webhookconfig.yaml' /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml
    
  • Modify API server config file to use the webhook service for authorization.

    sed -i '/image:/ i \ \ \ \ - --authorization-webhook-config-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/webhookconfig.yaml' /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml
    sed -i "/authorization-mode/c \ \ \ \ - --authorization-mode=Node,Webhook,RBAC" /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml
    
  • Wait for the API server to restart successfully until you can get all the pods in kube-system namespace by running kubectl get pod -n kube-system

Client(kubectl) configuration

If the k8s-keystone-auth service is configured for both authentication and authorization, make sure your OpenStack user in the following steps has the k8s-viewer role in Keystone as defined above, otherwise listing pod operation will fail.

Old kubectl clients

  • Run openstack token issue to generate a token
  • Run kubectl --token $TOKEN get po or curl -k -v -XGET -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN" https://localhost:6443/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods

kubectl clients from v1.8.0 to v1.10.x

The client is able to read the OS_ env variables used also by the openstackclient. You don’t have to pass a token with --token, but the client will contact Keystone directly, will get a token and will use it. To configure the client do the following:

  • Run kubectl config set-credentials openstackuser --auth-provider=openstack

This command creates the following entry in your ~/.kube/config

- name: openstackuser
  user:
    as-user-extra: {}
    auth-provider:
      name: openstack
  • Run kubectl config set-context --cluster=mycluster --user=openstackuser openstackuser@kubernetes
  • Run kubectl config use-context openstackuser@kubernetes to activate the context

After running above commands, your kubeconfig file should be like below:

apiVersion: v1
clusters:
- cluster:
    certificate-authority: /tmp/certs/ca.pem
    server: https://172.24.4.6:6443
  name: mycluster
contexts:
- context:
    cluster: mycluster
    user: admin
  name: default
- context:
    cluster: mycluster
    user: openstackuser
  name: openstackuser@kubernetes
current-context: openstackuser@kubernetes
kind: Config
preferences: {}
users:
- name: admin
  user:
    client-certificate: /tmp/certs/cert.pem
    client-key: /tmp/certs/key.pem
- name: openstackuser
  user:
    auth-provider:
      config:
        ttl: 10m0s
      name: openstack

In above kubeconfig, the cluster name is mycluster, the kube API address is https://172.24.4.6:6443. And in this kubeconfig file, there are two contexts. One for normal certs auth, and one for Keystone auth. Please note, the current context is openstackuser@kubernetes.

Source your env vars. Make sure you include OS_DOMAIN_NAME or the client will fallback to Keystone V2 that is not supported by the webhook.This env should be ok:

OS_AUTH_URL="https://keystone.example.com:5000/v3"
OS_DOMAIN_NAME="default"
OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION="3"
OS_PASSWORD="mysecret"
OS_PROJECT_NAME="myproject"
OS_REGION_NAME="myRegion"
OS_USERNAME="username"
  • Try: kubectl get pods

New kubectl clients from v1.11.0 and later

Client auth providers are deprecated in v1.11.0 and to be removed in the next version. The recommended way of client authentication is to use exec mode with the client-keystone-auth binary.

To configure the client do the following:

  • Run kubectl config set-credentials openstackuser

This command creates the following entry in your ~/.kube/config

- name: openstackuser
  user: {}

To enable exec mode you have to manually edit the file and add the following lines to the entry:

- name: openstackuser
  user:
    exec:
      command: "/path/to/client-keystone-auth"
      apiVersion: "client.authentication.k8s.io/v1alpha1"

And then

  • Run kubectl config set-context --cluster=mycluster --user=openstackuser openstackuser@kubernetes
  • Run kubectl config use-context openstackuser@kubernetes to activate the context

After running above commands, your kubeconfig file should be like below:

apiVersion: v1
clusters:
- cluster:
    certificate-authority: /tmp/certs/ca.pem
    server: https://172.24.4.6:6443
  name: mycluster
contexts:
- context:
    cluster: mycluster
    user: admin
  name: default
- context:
    cluster: mycluster
    user: openstackuser
  name: openstackuser@kubernetes
current-context: openstackuser@kubernetes
kind: Config
preferences: {}
users:
- name: admin
  user:
    client-certificate: /tmp/certs/cert.pem
    client-key: /tmp/certs/key.pem
- name: openstackuser
  user:
    exec:
      command: "/path/to/client-keystone-auth"
      apiVersion: "client.authentication.k8s.io/v1alpha1"

In above kubeconfig, the cluster name is mycluster, the kube API address is https://172.24.4.6:6443. And in this kubeconfig file, there are two contexts. One for normal certs auth, and one for Keystone auth. Please note, the current context is openstackuser@kubernetes.

Next you have several ways to specify additional auth parameters:

  1. Source your env vars. Make sure you include OS_DOMAIN_NAME or the client will fallback to Keystone V2 that is not supported by the webhook. This env should be ok:

     OS_AUTH_URL="https://keystone.example.com:5000/v3"
     OS_DOMAIN_NAME="default"
     OS_PASSWORD="mysecret"
     OS_USERNAME="username"
    
  2. Specify auth parameters in the ~/.kube/config file. For more information read client keystone auth configuaration doc and credential plugins documentation

  3. Use the interactive mode. If auth parameters are not specified initially, neither as env variables, nor the ~/.kube/config file, the user will be prompted to enter them from keyboard at the time of the interactive session.

To test that everything works as expected try: kubectl get pods

In case you are using this Webhook just for the authentication, you should get an authorization error:

Error from server (Forbidden): pods is forbidden: User "username" cannot list pods in the namespace "default"

You need to configure the RBAC with roles to be authorized to do something, for example:

kubectl create rolebinding username-view --clusterrole view --user username --namespace default

Try now again to see the pods with kubectl get pods

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